James Abercrombie (1706-1781) was a British general. During the Seven Years War, he served as the commander-in-chief for the North American forces and led the British forces in a failed attempt to capture Fort Ticonderoga (formerly Fort Carillon). The disastrous result led to Abercrombie's recall in September 1758, Jeffery Amherst taking his place as commander-in-chief.
Abercrombie was the cousin of a colonial administrator of the same name. His name can be found spelled as "Abercrombie" or "Abercromby."